48. This development--and its strong implication for US politics and economy in years ahead--has enthroned the South as America's most densely populated region for the first time in the history of the nation's head counting.
[参考译文] 这种发展--以及其对美国政治、经济在未来几年的潜在的强有力的影 响一一使得南部在全国人口普查中有史以来首次成为美国人口最密集 的地区。
49. Often they choose--and still are choosing--somewhat colder climates such as Oregon, Idaho and Alaska in order to escape smog.crime and other plagues of urbanization in the Golden State.
[参考译文] 他们常常选择--现在依然这样选择--居住在那些气候较为寒冷的地 区， 比如俄勒冈、爱达荷，还有阿拉斯加，为的是逃避烟雾、犯罪， 以及"金州"(加利福尼亚)城市化进程中的其他问题。
50. As a result, California's growth rate dropped during the 1970's, to 18.5 percent--little more than two thirds the 1960's growth figure and considerably below that of other Western states.
[参考译文] 结果，加利福尼亚的人口增长率在20世纪70年代时下降到了18.5％一 一稍高于60年代增长率的三分之二，大大低于西部其他各州。
51. Unlike most of the world's volcanoes, they are not always found at the boundaries of the great drifting plates that make up the earth's surface; on the contrary, many of them lie deep in the interior of a plate.
[参考译文] 跟世界上的大多数火山不同的是，它们(热点)并不总是在由构成地球 表面巨大漂流板块之间的边界上出现；相反，它们中有许多位于一个板 块较纵深的内部。
52. The relative motion of the plates carrying these continents has been constructed in detail, but the motion of the plates with respect to another cannot readily be translated into motion with respect to the earth's interior.
[参考译文] 携带这些大陆板块的相对运动已经能够被详细地表述出来，但是这些板 块相对于另一些板块的运动还不能轻易地解释为它们相对于地球内部 的运动。
53. As the dome grows, it develops seed fissures (cracks); in at least a few cases the continentmay break entirely along some of these fissures, so that the hot spot initiates the formation of a new ocean.
54. While warnings are often appropriate and necessary--the dangers of drug interactions, for example--and many are required by state or federal regulations, it isn't clear that they actually protect the manufacturers and sellers from liability if a customer is injured.
[参考译文] 尽管警告常常是适当而且必须的--比如对于药物相互作用的危险提出 警告--许多警告还是按州或联邦政府规定要求给出的，然而(我们) 并不清楚，如果顾客受到伤害时，这些警告是不是确实可以使得生产者 和销售者豁免责任。
55. At the same time, the American Law Institute--a group of judges, lawyers, and academics whose recommendations carry substantial weight--issued new guidelines for tort law stating that companies need not warn customers of obvious dangers or bombard them with a lengthy list of possible ones.
[参考译文] 与此同时，美国法律研究所--由一群法官、律师和理论专家组成，他 们的建议分量极重--发布了新的民事伤害法令指导方针，宣称公司不 必提醒顾客注意显而易见的危险，也不必连篇累牍地一再提请他们注意 一些可能会出现的危险。
56. In the past year, however, software companies have developed tools that allow companies to "push" information directly out to consumers, transmitting marketing messages directly to targeted customers.
[参考译文] 但是，在过去的一年间，软件公司已经开发出工具，使得公司可以直接 将信息"推出"给顾客，直接把营销讯息传递给目标顾客。
57. The examples of Virtual Vineyards, Amazon.com, and other pioneers show that a Web site selling the right kind of products with the right mix of interactivity, hospitality, and security will attract online customers.
[参考译文] 像Virtual Vineyards，Amazon.com这样的先驱网站表明，一个将交互性、 热情服务和安全性合理结合以销售同类商品的网址是可以吸引网上客户 注意的。
58. An invisible border divides those arguing for computers in the classroom on the behalf of students' career prospects and those arguing for computers in the classroom for broader reasons of radical education reform.
[参考译文] 有些人为了学生的就业前景为教室里放置电脑而辩，有些人为教育的彻 底改革中更为广泛的理由为教室里放置电脑而辩，这两群人之间有一条 无形的界线。
59. Rather, we have a certain conception of the American citizen, a character who is incomplete if he cannot competently access how his livelihood and happiness are affected by things outside of himself.
[参考译文] 我们更应该具有的是作为美国公民的某种观念，这个公民人物如果不能 很恰当地认识到自己的生存和幸福是如何受到自身之外的事物的影响， 那么其公民特征就是不完整的。
60. Besides, this is unlikely to produce the needed number of every kind of professional in a country as large as ours and where the economy is spread over so many states and involves so many international corporations.
[参考译文] 另外，在我们这么一个大国里，经济延展到这么多的州、涉及到这么多 的国际公司，因而要按照数量培养出所需的各类专业人员是不大可能的，
61.But,for a small group of students, professional training might be the way to go since well-developed skills, all other factors being equal, can be the difference between having a job and not.
[参考译文] 但是，对一个小部分学生来说，职业教育也是条可取的路径。因为在 其他因素相同的情况下，技能的娴熟是得到工作与否的关键。
62. Declaring that he was opposed to using this unusual animal husbandry technique to clone humans, he ordered that federal funds not be used for such an experiment-although no one had proposed to do so--and asked an independent panel of experts chaired by Princeton President Harold Shapiro to report back to the White House in 90 days with recommendations for a national policy on human cloning.
[参考译文] 他宣布自己反对使用这种非同寻常的畜牧繁殖技术来克隆人类，并下令 . 不准联邦政府基金用于做此类试验--尽管还没有人建议这么做--他 还请一个以普林斯顿大学校长哈罗得•夏皮罗为首的独立的专家组在90 天内向白宫汇报关于制定有关克隆人的国家政策的建议。 63. In a draft preface to the recommendations, discussed at the 17 May meeting, Shapiro suggested that the panel had found a broad consensus that it would be "morally unacceptable to attempt to create a human child by adult nuclear cloning". 参考译文] 在5月17日的会议上所讨论的这份建议书的序言草案中，夏皮罗提出， 专家组已经达成广泛共识，那就是"试图通过成人细胞核克隆来制造人类幼儿的 做法在道德上是不可接受的"。
64. Because current federal law already forbids the use of federal funds to create embryos (the earliest stage of human offspring before birth) for research or toknowingly endanger an embryo's life, NBAC will remain silent on embryo research.
[参考译文] 因为现今的联邦法律已经禁止使用联邦基金克隆胚胎(人类后裔在出生 前的最早阶段)用于研究或者有意地威胁胚胎的生命，NBAC在胚胎研 究上将保持沉默。
65. If experiments are planned and carried out according to plan as faithfully as the reports in the science journals indicate, then it is perfectly logical for management to expect research to produce results measurable in dollars and cents.
66. It is entirely reasonable for auditors to believe that scientists who know exactly where they are going and how they will get there should not be distracted by the necessity of keeping one eye on the cash register while the other eye is on the microscope.
67. Nor, if regularity and conformity to a standard pattern are as desirable to the scientist as the writing of his papers would appear to reflect, is management to be blamed for discriminating against the "odd balls" among researchers in favor of more conventional thinkers who "work well with the team."
[参考译文] 如果科学家对标准式样的整齐划一的要求就像他论文的写作所反映的一 样，那么管理层就不该因歧视研究者中的"思维与众不同的人"，喜欢其 中较为传统的"善于团队合作"的思想者而受到指责了。
68. The grand mediocrity of today--everyone being the same in survival and number of off- spring--means that natural selection has lost 80% of its power in upper-middle-class India compared to the tribe.
[参考译文] 当今人与人在很大程度上的平等--即面对自然淘汰法则人人机会均等，并且连子嗣的数目都一样--意味着和在印度土著部落中的情况相比， 印度中上层阶级中已丧失了80％的自然选择中的优势。
69. When a new movement in art attains a certain fashion, it is advisable to find out what its advocates are aiming at, for, however farfetched and unreasonable their principles may seem today, it is possible that in years to come they may be regarded as normal.
70. With regard to Futurist poetry, however, the case is rather difficult, for whatever Futurist poetry may be even admitting that the theory on which it is based may be right--it can hardly be classed as Literature.
71. But it is a little upsetting to read in the explanatory notes that a certain line describes a fight between a Turkish and a Bulgarian officer on a bridge off which they both fall into the river--and then to find that the line consists of the noise of their falling and the weights of the officers, "Pluff! Pluff!" A hundred and eighty-five kilograms."
[参考译文] 但当我们先是从注释中得知某诗行讲述了一个土耳其军官和一个保 加利亚军官在桥上动手打架并双双掉进河里，而后却发现该行诗中不过只充斥着"扑通，扑通，185公斤重"这类对他们落水时的动静以及对军官们体重的描写时，我们不免感到困惑不安。
72. The coming of age of the postwar baby boom and an entry of women into the male- domiated job market have limited the opportunities of teen-agers who are already questioning the heavy personal sacrifices involved in climbing Janpan's rigid social ladder to good schools and jobs.
[参考译文] 战后婴儿潮一代的步入成年以及女性打入男性主导的劳动力市场使得青少年的发展机会变得极为有限，他们已经在不停地质疑为了爬上日本国内那通往优秀学校和体面工作的严酷的社会阶梯而做出的巨大的个人 牺牲。
73. Last year Mitsuo Setoyama, who was then education minister, raised eyebrows when he argued that liberal reforms introduced by the American occupation authorities after World WarII had weakened the "Japanese morality of respect for parents".
74. With economic growth has come centralization: fully 76 percent of Japan's 119 million citizens live in cities where community and the extended family have been abandoned in favor of isolated, tow-generation households.
75. If the tradition of ambition is to have vitality, it must be widely shared; and it especially must be highly regarded by people who are themselves admired, the educated not least a-mong them.
76. Certainly people do not seem less interested in success and its signs now than formerly. Summer homes, European travel, BMWs--the locations, place names and name brands may change, but such items do not seem less in demand today than a decade or two years ago.
[参考译文] 当然，人们现在对成功及其各种标志的兴趣似乎并不亚于先前。消夏 别墅、欧陆旅行、宝马车--地点、地名以及品牌或许会有变化，但这类事物在今天被人渴求的程度也似乎不会亚于一二十年前。
77. Instead, we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles, which now more than ever seem in ample supply: the critic of American materialism with a Southampton summer home; the publisher of radical books who takes his meals in three-star restaurants; the journalist advocating participatory democracy in all phases of life, whose own children are enrolled in private schools.
78. No clear-cut distinction can be drawn between professional and amateurs in science: exceptions can be found to any rule. Nevertheless, the word "amateur" does carry a connotation that person concerned is not fully integrated into the scientific community and, in particular, may not share its values.
79. The trend was naturally most obvious in those areas of science based especially on a mathematical or laboratory training, and can be illustrated in terms of the development of geology in the United kingdom.