Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark
A, B, C or D on Answer Sheet 1. (10 points)
Imagine fishermen walking down to the seashore, ready to carry out their early morning routine of preparing their boats and net. _1_ they hope for a good catch of fish. But to their _2_, a horrible sight meets their still sleepy eyes. Thousands of fish have been washed _3_ dead. The cause of this mass destruction? A red tide!
Red tides are a global _4_. They have been observed on both the Atlantic and the Pacific coasts of the United States and Canada. They have also _5_ in many other places. Though relatively few people are _6_ them, red tides are not new.
In the Philippines, a red tide was first seen in the province of Bataan in 1908. Since then, red tides have been seen in many other _7_. A Philippines red tide expert told us that "_8_ the fish kills, the Philippines has documented 1,926 cases of dead shellfish poisoning caused by red tides."
The term "red tide" _9_ the discoloration of water that sometimes occurs in certain areas of the ocean or sea. Although the color is often red, it may also be _10_ of brown or yellow. The World Book Encyclopedia reports that "the discolored areas may range from _11_ a few square yards to more than 2, 600 square kilometers."
What causes such discoloration? Red tides are generally caused by several _12_ of single-celled organisms. These tiny organisms have hair-like projections which they use to _13_ themselves in water. There are about 2,000 varieties of these organisms, 30 of which carry poisonous _14_. These minute organisms usually stay in warm waters with high content of salt.
A red tide occurs when there is a sudden and rapid _15_ of these organisms. The concentration of these organisms may _16_ to 50, 000, 000 per quart of water! Although scientists do not fully understand why this happens, it is known that these organisms _17_ when certain conditions simultaneously affect the water. These include abnormal weather, _18_ temperatures, an oversupply of nutrients in the water, a generous _19_ sunlight, and favorable water currents. When a heavy rainfall occurs, minerals and other nutrients are sometimes washed _20_ the land into coastal water. These nutrients can contribute to the breeding of the organisms. The result? Red tides!
1. A. As a result B. As it is C. As expected D. As usual
2. A. satisfaction B. disappointment C. astonishment D. regret
3. A. ashore B. aboard C. aside D. across
4. A. question B. crisis C. phenomenon D. situation
5. A. occupied B. occurred C. acquired D. accused
6. A. assured of B. worried about C. concerned about D. aware of
7. A. sandy beaches B. river mouths C. coastal areas D. reef areas
8. A. except B. besides C. despite D. without
9. A. applies to B. sums up C. copes with D. leads to
10. A. shadows B. shades C. shakes D. shapes
11. A. less than B. more than C. as much as D. as little as
12. A. components B. elements C. ingredients D. species
13. A. propel B. probe C. proceed D. prompt
14. A. materials B. substances C. masses D. objects
15. A. bolt B. block C. bloom D. blast
16. A. scale B. plunge C. gauge D. swell
17. A. accelerate B. accommodate C. accumulate D. accompany
18. A. optimum B. minimum C. maximum D. momentum
19. A. means of B. amount of C. way to D. account for
20. A. over B. on C. by D. from